Sexual services in postindustrial settings were “diffuse and expansive rather than delimited and expedient”, including not just sexual intercourse resulting in sexual release but back rubs, talking, and therapy. Hence, the sex work transaction was measured in terms of time rather than specific acts, and involved emotions, eroticism, and deep acting. Yet the sex work transaction was effectively a market exchange with an emotional boundary between worker and customer, which was temporarily subordinated to the customer’s desire for authentic interpersonal connection, so that freebies or unpaid sexual transactions put off customers.
— Prabha Kotiswaran, Dangerous Sex, Invisible Labor. Sex Work and the Law in India
Scientific interest in hysteria arrived in Mexico alongside modernity. Hysteria is mentioned in some 18th-century texts and referred to at the end of the 19th century, whenever mental health or female illnesses are examined. Even in the earliest accounts, it was portrayed as an illness caused by ‘over-civilization’. According to Bartolache (1772), the main sufferers were the ladies of the upper and middle classes, and Jose Olvera (1895), agreed, identifying the victims of hysteria as those who could not resist the effects of civilization, and who were usually women. From the outset, hysteria was located within a discourse that regarded cultural evolution as a continuum, beginning with the ‘savage’, and culminating with the ‘civilized’.
— Frida Gorbach, From the Uterus to the Brain: Images of Hysteria in Nineteenth-Century Mexico (Lo que una se topa investigando para el doctorado)
Stereotypes about women’s domestic roles are reinforced by parallel stereotypes presuming a lack of domestic responsibilities for men. Because employers continued to regard the family as the woman’s domain, they often denied men similar accommodations or discouraged them from taking leave. These mutually reinforcing stereotypes created a self-fulfilling cycle of discrimination that forced women to continue to assume the role of primary family caregiver, and fostered employers’ stereotypical views about women’s commitment to work and their value as employees.
— Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs, Supreme Court of the United States, 2003
Mediating between the individual and the social structure, the family effects control and conformity where political and other authorities are insufficient.
— Kate Millet , Sexual Politics, citada por Catharine A. MacKinnon en Sex Equality
Gender might be described as the social form sex takes, the form through which sex is lived and experienced in human societies. Gender divisions in society exaggerate and polarize a distinction that is more like a continuum in most of its physical dimensions. The notion that male/female is a dimorphic and bipolar distinction is more a social idea of gender than a biological fact of sex.
— Catharine A. MacKinnon, Sex Equality
But to grant that the sexual imbalance of power is biologically based is not to lose our case. We are no longer just animals. And the kingdom of nature does not reign absolute.
— Shulamith Firestone, The Dialectic of Sex